Abstract and keywords
Abstract (English):
This article provides clinicians and other medical professionals with an introduction to the related fields of Sound Therapy and Music Medicine, outlining some of the many biological mechanisms advantageously activated by these modern modalities. The umbrella term for audible sound therapies is often popularly referred to as «Vibrational Medicine», embracing the energetic (vibrational) interconnectedness of the mind-body system. The information provided is intended for physicians, psychologists, music therapists, nurses, integrative medicine practitioners, and wellness practitioners utilizing the therapeutic potential of Vibrational Medicine. Since the body is comprised of vibrational energy, a wide variety of energetic modalities are available to support the patient’s physiology, and the article describes some of the many physiological mechanisms initiated by Sound Therapy and Music Medicine, perhaps most importantly, pain mediation, achieved by locally applied specific sound frequencies. Other mechanisms, such as vagal stimulation, are described and achieved by experiencing specific sound frequencies or music via headphones. The article is in two parts: Part 1 was published in the past issue (3-2023) of the «Medicine and Art» journal ( It provides a short history of therapeutic sound, followed by definitions of Music Therapy, Music Medicine, and Sound Therapy, followed by sections on some of the many biological mechanisms activated by full body immersion in music or specific sound frequencies, including an introduction to pain mediation by sound. Part 2 includes breaking the pain-spasm pain cycle in spinal injury by sound; pain relief and anxiety relief by acupressure and sonopuncture; oxygen-driven healing by sound; musical stimulation of the immune system; sonic stimulation of the vagus nerve via headphones and by vocalizations; and last, a look into the future of vibrational medicine.

Sound Therapy, Music Medicine, Vibrational Medicine, Ultrasonic
Publication text (PDF): Read Download

1. Rubik B. The Biofield Hypothesis: Its Biophysical Basis and Role in Medicine. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine, Vol 8, No 6. DOI;

2. When Microbial Conversations Get Physical, Gemma Reguera, Trends in Microbiology, DOI:

3. Das Wesen der Materie [The Nature of Matter] speech at Florence, Italy (1944) (from Archiv zur Geschichte der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Abt. Va, Rep. 11 Planck, Nr. 1797).

4. The Institute for Functional Medicine. Available at:

5. Sound Intensity and Sound Level // Available at:

6. Vatansever F. and Hamblin M.R. Far Infrared radiation (FIR): its biological effects and medical applications. Photonics and Lasers in Medicine. 2012 Nov 1;4: 255-266. DOI:

7. The Mereon Matrix, editors, McNair J.B., Dennis L., and Kauffman, L. p783-809: Reid J.S., The Emergent Science of Cymatics. World Scientific, ISSN 0219-9769. ISBN: 978-981-3233-55-3.

8. Life of Pythagoras, Iamblichus, Taylor T. Translated from the Greek, p. 7. Inner Traditions. (Iamblichus was a Syrian philosopher who lived circa 325 to circa 245 BC; therefore, a period of 170 years separates Pythagoras’ death from Iamblichus’ birth.)

9. The Athenian, Isocrates (436–338 BC), in his book Busiris, mentioned Pythagoras’ travels in Egypt: Measuring Heaven: Pythagoras and his influence on thought and art in antiquity and the Middle Ages, Christiane L. JoostGaugier.

10. The Life of Pythagoras, Professor Moritz Cantor, Heidelberg, Germany. Open Court Magazine, Volume 6, Number 493, June 1897.

11. Pythagoras: His Life and Teaching, a Compendium of Classical Sources, Thomas Stanley, Ibis Press.

12. Thaut M.H. Music as therapy in early history. Progress in Brain Research, Vol 217, DOI:

13. Nunn J.F. Ancient Egyptian Medicine, British Museum Press, 1997. p111 and p122. ISBN: 0-7141-1906-7

14. Lipton B. The Biology of Belief. Elite Books, 2005. ISBN: 0-9759914-7-7

15. Schwaller de Lubicz R.A. Sacred Science. Inner Traditions, Bear & Co, 1989. ISBN: 10:0892812222

16. Aristotle. Poetics. Loeb Classical Library. p395. ISBN: 0-674-99563-5

17. The Corpus Hermeticum, p74. Translated by Salaman C,. Oyen D., & Wharton, W.D. Gerald Duckworth & Co. Ltd, 1999. ISBN: 0-7156-2939-5

18. Imhotep. Available at:

19. Manniche, L. Music and Musicians in Ancient Egypt. p72. British Museum Press, 1991. ISBN: 0-7141-0949-5

20. Therapeutic ultrasound: some historical background and development in knowledge of its effect on healing:

21. Mason T.J. Therapeutic ultrasound, an overview. Journal of Ultrasonics Sonichemistry, 2011; 18 (4): 847-852. DOI:

22. Therapeutic Modalities for Allied Health Professionals. William E. Prentice. P271. McGraw-Hill publishing, p. 270.

23. Marberger, M, et al. Late Sequelae of Ultrasonic Lithotripsy of Renal Calculi. The Journal of Urology. DOI:

24. Dubinsky J.D, at al. Histotripsy: The Next Generation of High-Intensity Focused Ultrasound for Focal Prostate Cancer Therapy. DOI:

25. Tian Y. at al. New Aspects of Ultrasound-Mediated Targeted Delivery and Therapy for Cancer. Dove Press Open Access Journal.

26. Nicodemus N.E. et al. Focused transcranial ultrasound for treatment of neurodegenerative dementia. Alzheimer’s & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions, Volume 5, 2019, p374-381. DOI:

27. Therapeutic Ultrasound // Available at: highlight=over vieww#Therapeutic%20Ultrasound%20Thermal% 20and% 20 Non %20Thermal%20Effects%20Overview

28. Novasonic. // Available at:

29. Medsonix. // Available at:

30. KKT International. // Available at:

31. Cyma Technologies Inc. Available at:

32. American Music Therapy Association. Available at:

33. Brad J, et al. The impact of music therapy versus music medicine on psychological outcomes and pain in cancer patients: a mixed methods study. Support Care Cancer. DOI:

34. International Sound Therapy Association. Available at:

35. Cochrane Library // Available at: CD006577.pub3

36. Music as Medicine // Available at:

37. Johns Hopkins Medicine // Available at: music-as-medicine.html

38. McGill // Available at: -music-uncovered-225589

39. Therapeutic effect: Musical medic plays to cancer patient, 10, during surgery // Available at:

40. Audio Spotlight by Holosonics // Available at:

41. Available at:

42. Cockroft J. Exploring vascular benefits of endothelium-derived nitric oxide Medicine. American Journal of Hypertension. DOI

43. Majida R. et al. Nitric Oxide and Wound Healing. World Journal of Surgery. DOI:

44. Moilanen E. and Vapaatalo, H. Nitric oxide in inflammation and immune response. Annals of Medicine. DOI:

45. Noboru T, et al. Cerebral Blood Flow Regulation by Nitric Oxide: Recent Advances. Pharmacological Reviews. DOI:

46. Loscalzo J. Nitric Oxide Insufficiency, Platelet Activation, and Arterial Thrombosis. Circulation Research. DOI:

47. Ashutosh K, et al. Use of nitric oxide inhalation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thorax Journal. DOI:

48. Jones A, et al. Dietary Nitrate and Nitric Oxide Metabolism: Mouth, Circulation, Skeletal Muscle, and Exercise Performance. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise. DOI:

49. Majorana A, et al. Exercise and the Nitric Oxide Vasodilator System. Sports Medicine. DOI:

50. Weitzberg E. and Lundberg J.O. Humming Greatly Increases Nasal Nitric Oxide.

51. Goldman J. and Goldman A. The Humming Effect.

52. Lundberg J.O. and Weitzberg E. Nasal nitric oxide in man. Thorax Journal.

53. World History Encyclopedia // Available at:

54. Maniscalco M. et al. Assessment of nasal and sinus nitric oxide output using single-breath humming exhalations. European Respiratory Journal. 2003; 22:323-329. DOI:

55. Masuda S., Role of the maxillary sinus as a resonant cavity. DOI:

56. Pietropaoli A.P., et al., Simultaneous Measurement of Nitric Oxide Production by Conducting and Alveolar Airways of Humans. American Physiological Society.

57. Henry B. and Royston J. T., A Multiscale Analytical Model of Bronchial Airway Acoustics, Department of Bioengineering, University of Illinois. DOI:

58. Bogomolov A.V., et al. Mathematical Model of Sound Absorption by Lungs with Acoustic Stimulation of the Respiratory System. Doklady Biochemistry and Biophysics.2019; 487(1):247-250. DOI:

59. White Noise definition:

60. Parametric Equaliser:

61. Sethi S., et al., Lung Flute Improves Symptoms and Health Status in COPD with Chronic Bronchitis: A 26 week randomized controlled trial. Clinical and Translational Medicine. DOI:

62. Reddi, D. et al. An introduction to pain pathways and mechanisms. British Journal of Hospital Medicine. DOI:

63. Wang X-M et al. Up-Regulation of IL-6, IL-8 and CCL2 Gene Expression After Acute Inflammation: Correlation to Clinical Pain. Pain Journal. 2009 Apr; 142(3): 275-283. DOI:

64. Mills E.E.S. et al. Chronic pain: a review of its epidemiology and associated factors in population-based studies. British Journal of Anaesthesia. DOI:

65. Diatchenko L. et al. The phenotypic and genetic signatures of common musculoskeletal pain conditions. Nature Reviews Rheumatology. 2013; 9(6). DOI:

66. Raja N., et al. The revised International Association for Study of Pain definition of pain: concepts, challenges, and compromises. Pain Journal. DOI:

67. Bonica J.J. The management of pain. Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger, 1953.

68. Merskey H., Bogduk N. Classification of chronic pain. 2nd ed. Seattle: IASP Press, 1994. p. 1.

69. Rodriguez-Raecke R., et al. Brain gray matter decrease in chronic pain is the consequence and not the cause of pain. J Neurosci. 2009;29:13746–13750. DOI:

70. Baldini A. et al. A Review of Potential Adverse Effects of Long-Term Opioid Therapy: A Practitioner’s Guide. The Primary Care Companion for CNS Disorders. DOI:

71. Schwiening C.J. A brief historical perspective: Hodgkin and Huxley. The Journal of Physiology. DOI:

72. Heimburg T. and Jackson A.D. On soliton propagation in biomembranes and nerves. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. DOI:

73. Kaufmann K. (1989). Action Potentials and Electrochemical Coupling in the Macroscopic Chiral Phospholipid Membrane. Caruaru, Brazil.

74. Shrivastava S. and Schneider M. F. Evidence for two-dimensional solitary sound waves in a lipid controlled interface and its implications for biological signalling. The Royal Society Publishing Interface. DOI:

75. Shrivastava S. et al. Collision and annihilation of nonlinear sound waves and action potentials in interfaces. The Royal Society Publishing Interface. DOI:

76. Merriam-Webster Logo // Available at:

77. Melzack R. and Wall P. Pain Mechanisms: A New Theory. Science, Volume 150, Number 3699.

78. Bartel L. and Mosabbir A. Possible Mechanisms for the Effects of Sound Vibration on Human Health. Healthcare, 2021, 9, 597. DOI:

79. Wang W. et al. Efficacy of whole-body vibration therapy on pain and functional ability in people with non-specific low back pain: a systematic review. BMC Complementary Medicine and Therapies. (2020) 20:158 DOI:

80. Boeselt T. et al. Whole-body vibration therapy in intensive care patients: A feasibility and safety study. Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine. Vol 48, Issue 3.

81. Mosabbir A., et al. The Effects of Long-Term 40Hz Physioacoustic Vibrations on Motor Impairments in Parkinson’s Disease: A Double-Blinded Randomized Control Trial. Healthcare, 2020. DOI:

82. Hollins M. et al. How does vibration reduce pain? Perception 2014; 43:70-84.

83. Naghdi L. et al. The effect of low-frequency sound stimulation on patients with fibromyalgia: A clinical study. Pain Res. Manag. 2015; 20: E21-e27.

84. Staud R. et al. Attenuation of Experimental Pain by Vibro-Tactile Stimulation in Patients with Chronic Local or Widespread Musculoskeletal Pain. European Journal of Pain. 2011; 15(8): 836–842. DOI

85. Urien L. and Wang J. Top-Down Cortical Control of Acute and Chronic Pain. Psychosomatic Medicine. 2019;81(9):851-858. DOI

86. Pertovaara A. and Almedia A. Endogenous Pain Modulation. Chapter 13. Descending Inhibitory Systems. Handbook of Clinical Neurology, Vol. 81 (3rd series. Vol 3.) Pain. F. Cervero and T.S. Jenson, Editors. 2006, Elsevier.

87. Dobek C. et al. Music Modulation of Pain Perception and Pain-Related Activity in the Brain, Brain Stem, and Spinal Cord: A Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study. The Journal of Pain. 2014; 15(10):1057-1068. DOI:

88. Goldstein A. Thrills in response to music and other stimuli. Physiological Psychology. 1980; 8 (1):126-129. DOI:

89. Beecher H.K. Pain in men wounded in battle. Annals of Surgery. 1946; 123(1): 96–105.

90. Susuki R. et al. Bad news from the brain: Descending 5-HT pathways that control pain processing. TRENDS in Pharmacological Sciences. 2004; 25(12). DOI:

91. Gardner W.J. et al. Suppression of Pain by Sound. Science 132 (3418), 32-33. DOI:

92. Robson J.G. and Davenport H.T. The Effects of White Sound and Music upon the Superficial Pain Threshold. Canadian Anaesthetists’ Society journal.1962;9:105-8. DOI:

93. Fink D.J. What is a Safe Noise Level for the Public. American Journal of Public Health. 2017; 107(1): 44–45. DOI:

94. Travell J. et al. Pain and disability of the shoulder and arm. JAMA; 120: 417-422. DOI:

95. McCarberg B.H. et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Low-Back Pain because of Paraspinous Muscle Spasm: A Physician Roundtable. Pain Medicine, Volume 12, Issue suppl_4, November 2011, Pages S119-S127. DOI:

96. Roland M.O. A critical review of the evidence for a pain-spasm-pain cycle in spinal disorders. Clinical Biomechanics 1986; 1: 102-109 DOI:

97. Järvholm U. et al. Intramuscular pressure and muscle blood flow in supraspinatus. European Journal of Applied Physiology and Occupational Physiology. 58, pages 219–224 (1988). DOI:

98. Luo D. et al. A comparison between acute pressure block of the sciatic nerve and acupressure; methodology, analgesia, and mechanisms involved. Journal of Pain Research. 2013:6 589–593. DOI:

99. World Health Organization Geneva 1991, A proposed standard international acupuncture nomenclature. ISBN 92 4 154417 1

100. Chen Y-W and Wang H-H. The effectiveness of acupressure on relieving pain: a systematic review. Pain Management Nursing. 2014 Jun;15(2):539-50. DOI:

101. Franklin, E.F. Practitioner Self Care: A Study in the Applied Use of Soundvibrations with Acutonics Sound-Based Therapeutics. Oriental Medicine Journal. Vol. 27, No.3 2019.

102. Franklin, E.F. and Carey, D. Acutonics at Twenty: Recollections and Reflections. Oriental Medicine Journal, Spring 2017, Vol 25, No. 3.

103. Franklin E.F. Dissertation: Acutonics Self Care Program and Stress: Multiple Case Study Exploration of an Intervention to Ameliorate Symptoms of Severe Stress and Compassion Fatigue in Nurses. Faculty of Saybrook University. San Francisco, 2014.

104. Acutonics // Available at:

105. Tuning the Human Biofield, ISBN 10 1620552469

106. Biofield tuning study. Jain S, McKusick E, Ciccone L, Sprengel M, Ritenbaugh C. Sound healing reduces generalized anxiety during the pandemic: A feasibility study. Complement Ther Med. 2023 Jun;74:102947. DOI: Epub 2023 Apr 5. PMID: 37023932.

107. Novafon // Available at:

108. Sonopuncture // Available at:

109. Cyma Technologies // Available at:

110. Green Medinfo // Available at: Sound Therapy Association.

111. Chandan K.S. Wound Healing Essentials: Let There Be Oxygen. Wound Repair and Regeneration Journal. 2009; 17(1): 1-18. DOI:

112. Reznekov L. Understanding Heart Sounds and Murmurs, with an introduction to Lung Sounds. JAMA.1985;254(1):124–125. DOI

113. The Effects of Chronic Fear on a Person's Health // Available at:

114. Thau L. et al. Physiology, Cortisol. StatPearls Publishing LLC.

115. Segerstrom S.C. and Miller, G.E. Psychological Stress and the Human Immune System: A Meta-Analytic Study of 30 Years of Inquiry. Psychological Bulletin, 2004 Jul; 130(4):601-630 DOI:

116. Salimpoor, V.N. et al. Anatomically distinct dopamine release during anticipation and experience of peak experience to music. Nature Neuroscience. 14, 257-262 (2011). DOI:

117. Dopamine rewards immune cells through immunological synapse // Available at:

118. Bartlett D. et al. The Effects of Music Listening and Perceived Sensory Experiences on the Immune System Measured by Interleukin-1 and Cortisol. Journal of Music Therapy, Vol. 30, Issue 4, 1993, p 194-209. DOI:

119. Sprouse-Blum A.S. et al. Understanding Endorphins and their Importance in Pain Management. Hawai’i Medical Journal, Vol. 69, 2010, Mar; 69(3): 70-71. PMC3104618

120. Ohytocin // Available at:

121. Keeler J.R. et al. The neurochemistry and social flow of singing: bonding and oxytocin. Frontiers in Human Neuroscience. DOI: 1.3389/fnhum.2015.00518

122. Nilsson U. Soothing music can increase oxytocin levels during bed rest after open heart surgery: a randomised control trial. Journal of Clinical Nursing. 18, 2153-2161. DOI:

123. Magon N. and Kalra S. The orgasmic history of oxytocin: Love, lust, and labor. Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism. 2011 Sep; 15 (Suppl3): S156-S161. DOI:

124. Yu J.C. et al. Whole Body Vibration-Induced Omental Macrophage Polarization and Fecal Microbiome Modification in a Murine Model. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 2019, 20(13), 3125; DOI:

125. Scientific reports // Available at:

126. Oster G. Auditory beats in the brain. Scientific American, 229(4), 94-102. DOI:

127. Lane J.D. et al. Binaural Auditory Beats Affect Vigilance, Performance and Mood. Physiology and Behavior. Vol. 63, No 2, pp. 249-252, 1998. DOI:

128. Gkolias V. et al. Reduced pain and analgesic use after acoustic binaural beats therapy in chronic pain - A double-blind randomized control cross-over trial. European Journal of Pain. DOI:

129. Morris, S.E. (1990). Hemi-Sync and the facilitation of sensory integration. Hemi-Sync Journal, VIII(4), pp. 5-6.

130. Wilson, E.S. (1990). Preliminary study of the Hemi-Sync sleep processor. Colorado Association for Psychophysiologic Research.

131. Kennerly, R. C. (1994). Available at:

132. Breit S. et al. Vagus Nerve as Modulator of the Brain-Gut Axis in Psychiatric and Inflammatory Disorders. Frontiers in Psychiatry. DOI:

133. Pavlov A., and Tracey J.T. The vagus nerve and the inflammatory reflex — linking immunity and metabolism. Nature Reviews Endocrinology, 2012; 8(12): 743-754. DOI:

134. Bonaz B. eta al. Anti-inflammatory properties of the vagus nerve: potential therapeutic implications of vagus nerve stimulation. The Journal of Physiology. 594.20 (2016) pp 5781-5790. DOI:


136. Marijke D.C. et al. The Role of the vagus Nerve in Cancer Prognosis: A Systematic and a Comprehensive Review. Hindawi Journal of Oncology, Volume 2018. DOI:

137. Heathers J.A.J. Everything Hertz: methodological issues in short-term frequency-domain HRV. Frontiers in Physiology. DOI:

138. Zamotrinsky A.V. et al. Vagal neurostimulation in patients with coronary artery disease. Autonomic Neuroscience: Basic and Clinical 88 (2001) 109-116. DOI:

139. Amirhaeri, S., Spencer, D. 2010. Myocardial infarction with unusual presentation of otalgia: a case report. International Journal of Emergency Medicine 3, 459-460. DOI:

140. Llanos F. et al. Non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation selectively enhances speech category learning in adults. Npj Science of Learning. DOI:

141. Llanos F. et al. Hidden Markov modelling of frequency-following responses to Mandarin lexical tones. Journal of Neuroscience Methods 291, 101-112 (2017). DOI:

142. Parasym // Available at: nerve-stimulation.html (electrical stimulation)

143. Neuvana // Available at: (electrical stimulation)

144. Electrocore // Available at: (electrical stimulation)

145. Sensate // Available at:

146. Senhheiser, model HD 820. 6Hz – 48,000Hz.

147. Focal, model Utopia. 5Hz – 50,000Hz.

148. Beyer Dynamic, model DT770 Pro. 5Hz – 35,000Hz.

149. Tomatis A.A. The ear and the voice. Scarecrow press Inc., 2005. ISBN: 0-8108-5137-7

150. Cazden J. Stalking the calm buzz: how the polyvagal theory links stage presence, mammalian evolution, and the root of the vocal nerve. Voice and Speech Review. Oct 6. 2017, vol11. DOI:

151. Siegel D. Pocket Guide to Interpersonal Neurobiology: An Integrative Handbook of the Mind. (2012). W.W. Norton & Co. New York. ISBN:-10-039370713X

152. Porges S.W. The Pocket Guide to the Polyvagal Theory. (2017). W.W. Norton & Co. New York. ISBN-10-9780393707878

153. Vickhoff B., et al. Music structure determines heart rate variability of singers. Frontiers in Psychology, 2013. DOI:

154. Leicester scientists deploy space-age technologies at science-fiction style ‘sick bay’. University of Leicester.

155. HealBed: Vibroacoustic Therapy Devices // Available at:

156. Vibrobed // Available at:

157. Aquavibe // Available at:

158. Pelling E.P et al. Local nanomechanical motion of the cell wall of Saccharomyces. Science, 2004. DOI:

159. The dark side of the cell // Available at:

160. Reid J.S., Park J.P., and Sungchul J. Imaging Cancer and Healthy Cell Sounds in Water by CymaScope, followed by Quantitative Analysis by PlanckShannon Classifier. Available at:

161. Pollack G.H. The Fourth Phase of Water. Ebner & Sons Publishers, ISBN: 978-0-9626895-3-6 and ISBN: 978-0-9626895-4-3

Login or Create
* Forgot password?